New Education Policy Consultation

New Education Policy Consultation

The National Policy on Education was framed in
1986 and changed in 1992. From that point forward a few changes have occurred that requires a modification of the Policy.The Government of India would like to bring out a National Education Policy to meet the changing dynamics of the population’s requirement with regards to quality education, innovation and research, aiming to make India a knowledge superpower by equipping its students with the necessary skills and knowledge and to eliminate the shortage of manpower in science, technology, scholastics and industry.

New Education Policy Consultation

For the first time, the Government of India is embarking on a time-bound grassroots consultative process, which will empower the Ministry of HRD to reach out to individuals across the country through over 2.75 lakh direct consultations while also taking input from citizens online.

Formulating the New Education Policy :

The target of the meeting process is to ensure that an comprehensive, participatory and holistic approach is undertaken, which takes into consideration expert opinions, field experiences, empirical research, stakeholder feedback, as well as lessons learned from best practices.

Generally, past Commissions for driving Education Policy have attempted a typical methodology which incorporated the accompanying:

Top down approach based on setting up expert task force, working groups and/or sub-committees.

Every group depended on a topical topic.

Proposals were made in view of field visits, discussions, conferences/workshops,interviews, meetings, limited citizen effort, uncommon studies, meetings with constitutional leaders and elected officials.

The conference procedure included different partners including government, academia, industry, specialists and media.

The conference time taken changed from six months to three years.

While past consultative procedures have been broad, they have brought a top-down methodology, contingent upon restricted criticism from field laborers and partners on the ground who are capable actualizing the Education Policy. Further, they have been thematic based, with discussions being held in silos.

Subsequently, it is prescribed that a period bound, base up consultative procedure is attempted which will be driven by a multi-partner team at the National Level. Such a methodology will empower the Ministry of HRD to connect with people the nation over through more than 2.75 lakh direct meetings while also taking input from citizens online.

Prohibition of Child Marriage Act

 Prohibition of Child Marriage Act

Child Marriage Restraint Act :

Child marriage has been an issue in India for a long time. Because of its root in traditional, cultural and religious practises it has been a hard battle to fight. Child marriage is also associated with other problems like dowry and child widowhood. It is also associated with malnutrition, poor health of mothers and high fertility and hence over-population.

Child Marriage Restraint Act

Section 1. Short titled, extent and commencement.

(1) This Act may be called the Child Marriage Restraint Act (1929).

(2) It extends to the whole of Pakistan and applies to all citizens of Pakistan wherever they may be.

(3) It shall come into force on the 1st day of April, 1939.

Section 2. Definitions.

In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,

(a) “child” means a person who, if a male, is under eighteen years of age, and if a female, is under sixteen years of age;

(b) “child marriage” means a marriage to which either of the contracting parties is a child;

(c) “contracting party” to a marriage means either of the parties whose marriage is or is about to be thereby solemnized;

(d) “minor” means person of either sex who is under eighteen years of age,

(e) “Union Council” means the Union Council or the Town Committee constituted under the Law relating to Local Government for the time being in force.


(i) at the end of clause ©, the word “and” shall be added;

(ii) the comma appearing at the end of clause (d) shall be replaced by a full stop; and

(iii) clause e shall be omitted.

Punjab Ordinance, 23 of 1971.
Section 3. Omitted by Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961 (VIII of 1961 S. 12 (w.e.f. 15.07.1961).
Section 4. Punishment for male adult above eighteen years of age marrying a child.

Whoever, being a male above eighteen years of age, contracts child marriage shall be punishable with simple imprisonment which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.
Section 5. Punishment for solemnizing a child marriage.

Whoever performs, conducts or directs any child marriage shall be punishable with simple imprisonment which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both, unless he proves that he had reason to believe that the marriage was not a child marriage.

Section 6. Punishment for parent or guardian concerned in a child marriage.

(1) Where a minor contracts a marriage any individual having charge of the minor, whether as guardian or parent or in whatever other limit, legitimate or unlawful, who does any demonstration to advance the marriage or grants it to be solemnized, or carelessly neglects to keep it from being solemnized, should be culpable with basic detainment which may reach out to one month, or with fine which may stretch out to one thousand rupees, or with both:

Given that no lady should be punishable with imprisonment.

(2) For the purpose of this section, it should be assumed, unless and until the opposite is proved, that where a minor has contracted a child marriage, the individual having charge of such minor has carelessly neglected to keep the marriage from being solemnized.

Related link:
Child marriage in India
Child marriage

Inheritance of Property in India

Son’s and daughter’s right in father’s property

Sons and daughters have several rights as a coparcener. For Example, they get a privilege in ancestral property by conception; right to survivor ship: if one coparcener dies the property gets partitioned among the rest. They are in joint possession and ownership of property and if they want partition, they can assert so by filing a partition suit.

Inheritance of Property in India

Coparcenercan likewise obtain a different property and in the meantime has right to distance the property to any more unusual his offer in hereditary property and self-acquired property. Father can also gift property to his son and it won’t be treated as ancestral property which the son can then alienate to anyone he wants.

Can a father gift a property to his son?

In C. N. Arunachala Mudaliar vs C. A. Muruganatha Mudaliar the Supreme Court held that property gifted by a father to his son could not become ancestral property in the hands of the son simply by reason of the fact that he got it from his father. The court observed that the property of the grandfather can normally vest in the father as ancestral property.

The father gets ancestral property under two conditions i.e. inherits such property on the death of the grandfather or receives it by partition made by the grandfather himself during his lifetime. However, when the father obtains the grandfather’s property by way of gift, it is not considered an ancestral property.

Sons and daughters don’t have any claim on property gifted by grandfather

A gift from father to his son is not part of ancestral property as the son does not inherit the property on the death of the grandfather or receive it by partition made by the grandfather during his lifetime. The grandson has no legitimate right on such property on the grounds that his grandfather presented some help on his dad which he could have gave on some other individual too.

Hence, the interest which he takes in such property must rely on the will of the grantor and thusly, when the son has got the property from his father as a gift, his sons or daughter cannot claim part in it calling it ancestral property. He can alienate the gifted property to anyone he likes and in any way he likes. Such a property is dealt with as self-procured property, gave there is no communicated expectation in the deed of the blessing by the granddad while gifting the property to his son.

Sons and daughters have property rights only on the properties that have devolved upon their father and become ancestral property in the father’s hands.

Related Links:
Land acquisition in India
Transfer of Property Act 1882


Peter Mukerjea accused of homicide; Judicial care of Indrani, other blamed stretched out till Dec 3

Mumbai: The legal guardianship of prime blamed in the April 2012 Sheena Bora homicide case, Indrani Mukherjee, and two others – her ex Sanjeev Khanna and her driver Shyamvar Rai – was stretched out on Friday till December 3 to permit examiners to proceed with their test.

The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) likewise charged the author of the News X TV station and gathering, Peter Mukerjea, with homicide and criminal intrigue regarding the homicide case.

The CBI said that while it had before booked Peter Mukherjea under a few areas of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), he had likewise been also charged under Sections 302 and 364, and would be arraigned in like manner. It said that four genuine allegations have been leveled against him.

Prior, the greater part of the blamed in the April 2012 Sheena Bora homicide case were created before a Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) court here on Friday.

They were acquired to the court the Killa zone of in Mumbai

Aside from prime charged Indrani Mukerjea, the other people who were delivered under the watchful eye of the court incorporated her ebb and flow spouse Peter Mukherjea, her past spouse Sanjeev Khanna and her driver Shyamvar Rai.

Dwindle’s sibling and child, Gautam Mukerjea and Rahul Mukerjea were likewise come to Killa court in Mumbai.

Mikhail Bora, the child of Indrani Mukerjea, had said on Friday that he will keep on requesting equity for the homicide of his sister Sheena and not waver to submit himself to addressing again if necessary. He said he is prepared to collaborate completely with the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).

“I came to think about it yesterday night. I don’t comprehend what is happening about Peter Mukherjea. CBI is researching. How about we see what happens. I will give my participation to the CBI. I am looking for equity for my sister and I trust it will get it soon,” Mikhail told media here.

Diminish Mukherjea was captured yesterday by the CBI. His child Rahul Mukherjea had likewise gone to the CBI base camp in Mumbai for addressing and left from that point at the beginning of today.

Indrani, her ex spouse Sanjeev Kumar and her previous driver Shyamvar Rai, were captured in August regarding the slaughtering of her little girl Sheena in April 2012. Sheena’s mostly blazed body was found in the woodlands of Maharashtra’s Raigad District.

On November 3, the legal care of Indrani Mukerjea, and the staying two blamed was stretched out till November 7 after their prior remand had finished.

Prior, this month, the CBI was given consent by the Bombay High Court to scrutinize all the three blamed in the Sheena Bora murder case.

Growth of Civil Aviation in India

Indian Aviation Sector : AN OVERVIEW

India is the ninth largest aviation market in the world with a size of around US$ 16 billion and is ready to be the 3rd biggest by 2020. India aviation industry promises huge development potential because of vast and growing middle class population, rapid economic growth, higher expendable incomes, rising aspirations of the middle class and general low penetration levels.

Growth of Civil Aviation in India

Civil aviation industry in India is experiencing a new era of expansion driven by elements for example low cost carriers, modern airports, foreign direct investments in domestic airlines, cutting edge information technology interventions and growing emphasis on regional connectivity. Civil aviation sector has been becoming consistently enrolling a development of 13.8% amid the most recent 10 years. The air transport in India has attracted FDI of over US$ 569 million from April 2000 to February 2015.

The Indian airports have a combined capacity to cater to 220.04 million passengers and 4.63 million tonnes cargo per annum and handled 168.92 million passengers and 2.28 million tonnes cargo in 2013-14. According to estimates, passenger traffic at Indian Airports is expected to increase to 450 million by 2020 from 159.3 million in 2012-2013.

Looking at future air transportation prerequisites and desire to become a global player in creating/commercializing aerospace innovations, India is rapidly building capabilities to emerge as a preferred destination for manufacturing of aerospace components.

Growth of Civil Aviation in India

Throughout the following decades, India undoubtedly has the potential to become a significant part of the global aerospace supply chain as India offers cost advantages of between 15 to 25 per cent in manufacturing, together with its large procurement appetite. Robust technical and engineering capabilities backed by top-notch scientific and technical institutes are other positive offerings on the table.


  • An investment of over US$ 12 billion required amid the Twelfth Five Year Plan
  • Airlines are relied upon to work around 1000 aircraft’s by 2020, up from the present 450
  • Investment to the tune of US $4 billion required for General Aviation aircrafts by 2017
  • Air Navigation Services involves speculation worth US$ 7 billion in Twelfth Five Year Plan
  • FDI up to 49% permitted in local airlines by the outside bearers
  • Outside value up to 100% permitted in airport development
  • Domestic and international passenger traffic anticipated that would develop at yearly normal rate of 12% and 8% in next five years
  • Yearly normal rate of development of domestic and international cargo estimated to be 12% and 10% during next five years
  • MRO industry to triple in size from INR 2250 crore in 2010 to INR 7000 crore by 2020
  • Around 3,50,000 new employees are essential to encourage growth in the next decadeRelated Resource:
    Indian (airline)
    Civil Aviation Sector in India

Criminal Justice System

1. I Is a legitimate procedure adjusted by a civilized society in the avoidance and solution of wrongdoings which is conveyed on through INVESTIGATION and the persons suspected thereof is taken into lawful authority, indicted in a court of law, and rebuffed if found guilty, or absolved if discovered innocent,provision being made for his/her correction and restoration

2. A review of the Philippine Criminal Justice framework The Philippines, similar to whatever other country that capacity under an arrangement of a democratic culture, works its criminal justice framework mechanical assembly whereby society identifies, examines, blames, tries convicts, rebuffs, and rehabilitation criminal wrongdoers. Consequently, the Philippines Criminal Justice System may be seen in three (3) testing points of view, such as the accompanying:

3. To start with It state the thought of discouragement, the thought that the risk of authorizations can anticipate wrongdoings by making an apprehension of discipline for the individuals who may break the law;Second It follows on the standards of the requital, the thought that criminal guilty parties should languish over the mischief they have done, and their discipline ought to be proportionate to the damage dispensed; and Third It support on the idea of behaviour change, which recommends that criminal assents ought to mean to change sentenced criminal guilty parties so they will avoid wrongdoing later on.

4. THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AS PART OF THE TOTAL SOCIAL SYSTEM IN THE PHILIPPINES In the Philippines the criminal equity line-organizations is made out of, the Police, Prosecution, Court, Correctional Institutions, Community ,as it is outlined in the graph underneath.

5. Monetary system Educational framework Technological framework Health care framework Political framework Criminal Justice framework Other frameworks


7. The Formal Criminal Justice Process One method for comprehension the Criminal Justice is to view it as a procedure that takes criminal guilty party through a progression of the decision points starting with the capture and concluding with the re entry into society. A comprehensive view of formal Criminal Justice prepare would normally begin with the connections of the criminal justice segments as it is appeared on the diagram underneath whereby the stream of violators passes through criminal Justice System sequential request.

8. Group Violators Correctional Law Enforcement Court Prosecutor Flow of violators through the Criminal Justice System

9. Police/Law Enforcement Specifically, the first stage in the criminal equity process pertains police or Law requirement activities which is carried on through INVESTIGATION of wrongdoings that are reported to or found by the police or Law implementers.

10. A. POLICE INVESTIGATION 1.Initial contact The starting contact with the criminal justice system happens as an after effect of a police actions. Case. A police allocated on watch watched a person really carrying out a wrongdoing, or contacted by a casualty who reports a wrongdoing, the police respond by heading off to the scene of the wrongdoing to investigate.

11. 2. Examination The motivation behind the investigatory stage is to assemble adequate confirmation to recognize the suspect and backing a legitimate capture. The procedure of examination incorporates yet not restricted to:a. Reconnaissance and perception of suspects b. Taking of photos surreptitiously or generally

12. c. Meeting of persons with individual learning of facts d. Ensnarement associates ( with assent with the court) when feasible e. Inquiry of premises or persons and seizures of items, subject to sacred and statutory safe guards f. Examination of open and other accessible records relating to persons included in wrongdoings.

Legal Drinking Age in India

Drinking Age in India 2015

The issue of the right age to drink has perpetually been in question in India with each state graphing its own laws regarding the legal age to permit purchase and consumption of alcohol. In India, the consumption of alcohol is banned in Gujarat, Manipur, Mizoram , Kerala and Nagaland as well as the union territory of Lakshadweep. The rest of the states permit consumption but have fixed a drinking age.

Legal  Age  for Drinking in India :

State/UT Drinking Age:
Kerala 21
Lakshadweep Illegal
Madhya Pradesh 18
Maharashtra No limit (wine) 21 (beer) 25 (Other)

Legal Drinking Age in India

Plans to Bring Down Legal Drinking Age

Delhi Government is thinking about to bring down the legal drinking age for beer from the existing 25 to 21 years, with the Excise Department setting up a proposal in this regard. However, the department’s proposal is yet to be given go-ahead by the government.

As per the proposal, which is likely to be put before the Cabinet soon, the new age limit will only be applicable for consumption of wine and beer, whereas the legal drinking age for hard liquor like rum, gin, whisky and vodka remains 25 years.

As indicated by sources, the Excise Department has cited that the same age limit (21 years) is in force in many states. Mumbai also has similar rule which allows those above 21 years old to buy and consume beer. They also said that if this proposal gets the government nod, it may be tabled in the up and coming spending plan session planned to be held later this month.

Related Links:
Alcohol laws of India
Legal drinking age


3 Legal Issues Online Marketers Must Know

Legal issues in marketing : There are several key legal issues relating to Marketing, you should know about before you start contacting customers or potential customers.The three primary legal areas you need to consider are privacy and data collection, intellectual property issues, and rules and regulations of the FTC and other consumer assurance bodies.

3 Main Legal Issues Online Marketers Must Know

3 Key Legal Issues in Marketing

1. Privacy and Data Collection
2. Intellectual Property Issues
3. Advertising

1. Privacy and Data Collection: It may appear to be oversimplified to point out that before you can send marketing emails or messages, you have to collect the contact information of your customers or potential customers. Yet, the actual process of collecting the information is far more complex than it seems, particularly if you’re trying to collect it in a legally compliant manner.

Laws and Your Privacy Policy

Most jurisdictions around the world have privacy legislation in place that requires you to advise individuals before you collect their personal information. This includes someone who is already a customer, despite the fact that the UK has some somewhat more lenient laws for individuals who have as of now acquired something from you.

In the US, there is no larger security law that applies to the accumulation of information, But California has a bit of enactment that covers online security – the California Online Privacy Protection Act (OPPA). It requires that you have to disclose:

The sorts of information your website or online marketing gather

How the data may be shared :The procedure your clients or customers can take after to review and change the information you have about them

In the event that you have an online store or in case you’re advertising to individuals online in the US, you’re quite likely to have customers or potential customers in California, so you should take care to comply with this law.

The most easiest way to approach is to set up a Privacy Policy on your website and require your customers or website users to consent to it when you collect information from them.

3 Key Legal Issues in Marketing

To ensure your customer’s or user’s agreement will stand up legally, use a clickwrap strategy. A clickwrap method is where your customer or user has to click “I Agree” to your Privacy Policy in some way. This could be when they sign up to receive your marketing messages or when they make a purchase on your website.

2. Intellectual Property Issues : The 2nd legal issue to consider as a marketer is intellectual property. First, you want to protect your own intellectual property, such as trademarks and copyright. Second, you want to ensure that you don’t infringe on the intellectual property of others.

Main types of intellectual property protection

Trademark :If you are sending out marketing emails or contacting people with flyers or advertisements, the first thing you will need to protect is your brand or logo.

Registering a trademark gives you the exclusive right to use a specific word or words, name, design, or logo in connection with specific goods or services. It is valid for 10 years and is renewable if certain requirements are met.

Copyright: If you use original marketing language on your website or text in emails, you may want to copyright that text. Copyright relates to authorship of original works, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, architectural, and a broad range of other works.

If you work with any third parties who write your marketing copy or text for you, ensure that their work is checked for plagiarism. You don’t want to infringe on someone else’s copyrighted work when sending out your emails or newsletters.

3. Advertising

The FTC requires that advertisements and marketing messages should not mislead consumers or unfairly affect consumers’ behavior or decisions about the product or services. Unfair or deceptive advertising is prohibited, which means that any marketing must tell the truth and not leave out any relevant information that a consumer would be interested in.

Be careful with any comparative advertising or marketing. If you don’t compare products fairly and transparently, you may be breaching advertising standards. Check the wording of your marketing messages carefully and ensure that someone outside of your marketing team (such as someone from your legal team) has a quick look at what your message is saying. A fresh pair of eyes may notice claims that aren’t quite true or descriptions that overemphasize a product’s abilities.

Other regulators on the advertising front that you may need to keep in mind are theAdvertising Self-Regulatory Council, which governs the National Advertising Review Board and the Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU). If any of your marketing is targeted at children, ensure that you are fully aware of CARU’s guidelines.

Related Source:
Email marketing
Online advertising
Legal issues for online marketers

Delhi HC issues notification to S Sreesanth, others in IPL 6 spot settling case

The Delhi High Court on Wednesday looked for the reactions of suspended cricketers S Sreesanth, Ajit Chandila and Ankeet Chavan and 33 others on a request by the city police testing their release by a trial court in the 2013 IPL-6 spot altering outrage case.

Equity Siddharth Mridul issued notification to all the 36 respondents who were given a perfect chit by the trial court on July 25 and looked for their answers by December 16, the following date of hearing.

The High Court additionally required the trial court records on the advance documented by Delhi Police which had moved the claim on September 2. The trial court’s decision had said the agents had neglected to accumulate “every single vital fixing to set up a by all appearances case” under the stringent Maharashtra Control of Organized Crime Act (MCOCA).

The trial court had dropped all charges against the 36 denounced, including a few bookies, holding that the Special Cell of Delhi Police had been not able build up any “nexus” or connection in the middle of them and wrongdoing syndicate purportedly keep running by criminal underworld wear Dawood Ibrahim and his nearby assistant Chhota Shakeel, who, alongside one Sandeep, were announced declared guilty parties for the situation.

Three other charged – Javed Chutani, Salman and Ehtesham – are Pakistani nationals and the police couldn’t lay their hands on them. Pouncing upon the decision, the claim has fought that the trial court request was unsustainable.

The Delhi Police has contended that the rationale and conclusions set forth to discharge the charged was not right. It has further fought that the trial court had failed totally in deciphering the procurements of MCOCA managing wrongdoing syndicates and the way in which the issue of confining of charges had been talked about should have been be taken a gander at once more.

Other than the three cricketers who were a piece of the IPL group Rajasthan Royals and banned for life for their claimed inclusion in wrongdoing, a few bookies were among 36 named in the 6,000-page charge sheet.

In the charge sheet, the Delhi police had guaranteed to have uncovered adequate proof to indict them for the offense culpable under area 120B (intrigue) read with 419 (swindling by personation), 420 (tricking) of IPC, other than those identifying with MCOCA.

The trial court had couldn’t help contradicting the police on summoning MCOCA against the denounced and said, “as well as could be expected have been under Public Gambling Act, yet that additionally is not at first sight set up from the proof put on record by arraignment.”

“The offense of conning is likewise not made out by all appearances, regardless of the possibility that the whole confirmation of arraignment is conceded without formal evidence,” the trial court had included.

NRI crashes SUV at Attari Indo-Pak border, gets arrested

Amritsar: In a noteworthy security rupture at the Wagah-Attari fringe crossing with Pakistan, a NRI slammed his SUV into the security doors at the Attari Joint Check Post (JCP) in the small hours yesterday and came to the Zero line at the International Border.

The 42-year-old NRI from Canada, who initially hails from Jalandhar and was distinguished as Surinder Singh Kang, was later captured by the BSF, Punjab Border Range IG Lok Nath Angra said.

Kang crushed his SUV into two doors before being overwhelmed by BSF work force, Angra said, including that “few drugs expended for brain unwinding were recuperated from his ownership.”

BSF IG Anil Paliwal said that “the individual broke into two entryways before being captured and was given over to Punjab police.”

Angra said that a case under endeavor to murder, Passport Act and keeping government official from performing his obligations had been enlisted against the individual who was driving a dim hued Mahindra Scorpio vehicle.

“Examination is under procedure,” Angra said, including that it was ‘pre-adult’ to set up that he was a psychiatric patient. A senior BSF authority said that the NRI has advised examiners that he needed to pay deference at Nankana Sahib in Pakistan, yet thought acquiring visa and experiencing different customs would require some serious energy.