Things Will Improve In 10 to 15 Days

Demonetisation: Things Will Improve In 10 to 15 Days, Says Shripad Naik

Panaji: The emergency brought on by the lack of new coin notes will hold over in “10 to 15 days” Union Minister of State for AYUSH (Independent Charge) Shripad Naik said on Wednesday, including that cash was being transported via plane and helicopters to the money deficiency states.

“A few troubles will be there and ought to be borne. It is such a major stride. The Opposition ought to likewise offer assistance. Things will enhance in 10 to 15 days. (Currency)) notes are being provided by helicopters and planes in all states,” Naik said.

notes are being supplied by helicopters and planes in all states  500 and 2000 notes india 2016

Naik additionally said that Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s turn to demonetise coin would check debasement, black money, terrorism and inflation.

Muslim groups reject law panel move on uniform civil code

The All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB), alongside a few different associations connected with the Muslim people group, has restricted the Law Commission’s poll on the likelihood of a Uniform Civil Code (UCC). They have chosen to blacklist the whole work out.

AIMPLB has additionally watched that the Center’s late affirmation in the Supreme Court dismissing the legitimacy of the triple talaq was an underhand intends to force a UCC in India.

Muslim groups reject law panel move on uniform civil code

Why is UCC being restricted by AIMPLB?

As indicated by the Muslim board, “The uniform code is not suited for this country. There are such a variety of societies in India and they must be regarded. A uniform code is against the soul of the Constitution, which shields the privilege of subjects to rehearse their way of life and religion.” Also, UCC, when executed, will convey to an end nation’s pluralism and paint all in “one shading”.


The advancement comes days after the Union government told the Supreme Court that ‘triple talaq’, ‘nikaah halala’ and polygamy were not fundamental to the act of Islam or crucial religious practices. Along these lines, the Law Commission had set up on its site a poll, containing 16 inquiries, to look for popular feeling on the common code issue.

What is triple talaq?

‘Triple Talaq’ is a system of separation under the Sharia Law which is a body of the Islamic law. Under this, a spouse can separate his better half by affirming “Talaq” thrice.

Why triple talaq ought to be abolished?

Despite challenges by Muslim ladies and activists worldwide the method is still common in many nations.

There are a few occurrences where ‘triple talaq’ has empowered spouses to separate their wives self-assertively, without any substantiation.

As indicated by a study, 92% of Muslim ladies in India need oral triple talaq to go.

Oral talaq or ‘triple talaq’ conveyed through new media stages like Skype, instant messages, email and WhatsApp have turned into an expanding reason for stress for the group.

The ‘triple talaq’ has been abrogated in 21 nations including Pakistan, yet is still pervasive in India.

The Center reasons that these practices are against sacred standards, for example, sexual orientation fairness, secularism, worldwide laws and so on.

The legislature additionally contends that when these practices are banned in Islamic religious nations, the practices could have definitely no base in religion and are just predominant to allow the strength of men over ladies.

What is uniform civil code?

Uniform civil Code is a proposition to have a bland arrangement of representing laws for each national without thinking about the religion.

What the constitution says?

Article 44 of the Constitution says that there ought to be a Uniform Civil Code. As indicated by this article, “The State should attempt to secure for the residents a uniform common code all through the region of India”. Since the Directive Principles are just rules, it is not obligatory to utilize them.

Why have a UCC?

A mainstream republic needs a custom-based law for all residents as opposed to separated principles in view of religious practices.

Another motivation behind why a uniform common code is required is sex equity. The privileges of ladies are typically constrained under religious law, be it Hindu or Muslim. The act of triple talaq is a great illustration.

Numerous practices administered by religious convention are inconsistent with the central rights ensured in the Indian Constitution.

Courts have additionally frequently said in their judgements that the administration ought to move towards a uniform common code incorporating the judgment in the Shah Bano case.

Be that as it may, why it is hard to have a UCC?

India being a common nation ensures its minorities the privilege to take after their own particular religion, culture and traditions under Article 29 and 30. In any case, executing a Uniform Code will hamper India’s secularism.

Way ahead:

The administration can’t stay quiet on the issue any longer. Clearly the legislature would need to confront a few difficulties from numerous preservationist assembles on this front. Be that as it may, it will need to endeavor to construct trust, and all the more significantly, make normal cause with social reformers instead of religious moderates, as has been the wont of past governments.

One vital choice is to take after the way taken after the blazing level headed discussions over the change of Hindu common law in the 1950s. As opposed to an omnibus approach, the legislature could likewise bring separate viewpoints, for example, marriage, selection, progression and upkeep into a uniform common code in stages.

An exhaustive audit of a few different laws with regards to sex equity would likewise do well.


What is terrible is the interest for UCC has dependably been encircled with regards to mutual legislative issues. Numerous consider it to be majoritarianism under the attire of social change. It should be comprehended that progressions are bit by bit and gradually acknowledged by the general public and are noteworthy for each individual regardless of group, sex and standing. Balanced level headed discussions ought to be there without polarizing a nation like India whose mainstream texture and national trustworthiness can’t be put in question. Changes are required in every single individual law whether it is Hindu, Muslim or Christian yet it is required that these requests originate from the general population themselves. Constraining a specific arrangement of guidelines on individuals won’t fill the genuine need of uniform common code.




ADP :- Assistant Director of Prosecution.
APP :- Assistant Public Prosecutor.
CC No :- Calendar Case. Number.
CJM :- Chief Judicial Magistrate.
DDP :- Deputy Director of Prosecution.
DJ :- District Judge.
DW :- Defense Witness.
FTC :- Fast Track Court.
JM :- Judicial Magistrate.
MC :- Magisterial Clerk.
NBW :- Non Bailable Warrant.
PP :- Public Prosecutor.
PRC No. :- Preliminary Registration Case Number.
PT :- Pending Trial.
PT Warrant :- Prisoner Transfer Warrant.
PW :- Prosecution Witness.
SC No. :- Sessions Case Number.
STC No :- Summary Trial Case Number.

1.Taken on file

2. Apperence of accused

3. For copies

4. For charge frame

5. For trial Examination of pw1 to io

6. 313 Crpc Questioning

7. Arguments on both side

8. Judgement

1. CC- Calender case

2. STC- Summery trial case

3. PRC- Priliminary register case

4. SC- Sessions case

5. JC- Journial case

255 Crpc In STC case

248 Crpc In CC case

235 Crpc In SC case

317 Crpc – Petition filied for absence of accused

207 Crpc – For copies

311 Crpc – To recall witness at any stage after trial

91 Crpc – To produce documents

205 Crpc – Apperence dispence of accused

239 Crpc – Discharge of accused

257 Crpc – withdrawal of complaint

301 Crpc – To assisting the prosecution

302 Crpc – Private prosecution

156(3) Crpc – Direction to register a case

173(5)(8) Crpc – Additional documents to be filed after filing a charge sheet

167(2) Crpc Bail in mandatory provision in Sessions case -90days Below 3 years punishment cases – 60

437 Crpc Lower court bail

438 Crpc sessions bail / Anticipatory bail

439 Crpc High court bail
Txerms used in Investigation and Police Records :-

AR Copy :- Accident Register Copy.
CD :- Case Diary.
Cr.No. :- Crime Number.
FIR :- First Information Report.
FP :- Finger Print.
FR :- Final Report.
IO :- Investigation Officer.
IP :- In Patient.
LCD :- Last Case Diary.
MO :- Modus Offender.
MO :- Medical Officer.
PM :- Post Mortem.
PMC :- Post Mortem Certificate.
PNR :- Prisoner Nominal Roll.(Prison Record ).
RCS :- Referred Charge Sheet.
r/w :- Read with.
Sec. :- Section.
SOC :- Scene of Crime.
UI :- Under Investigation.
u/s :- Under Section.
WC :- Wound Certificate.
AD :- Action Dropped.
UN :- Undetected.
MF :- Mistake of Fact.
ML :- Mistake of Law.
CSR :- Community Service Register.
GCR :- Grave Crime Report or General Conviction Register.
GD :- General. Diary.
LLI :- Loose Leaf Index.
OP :- Out Post / Out Patient.
PSR :- Prisoners Search Register.
SHO :- Station House Officer.
SHR :- Station House Report.
BC :- Bad Character.
DC :- Dossier Criminal.
HO :- Habitual Offender.
HS :- History Sheet.
KD :- Known Depredator.
LFO :- Local First Offender.
LKD :- Local Known Depredator.
NLFO :- Non Local First Offender.
NLKD :- Non Local Known Depredator.
L & O :- Law and Order.
OD :- Other Duty.
PSO :- Police Standing Order / Personnel Security Officer.
ID :- Illicit Distillation.
IMFL :- Indian Made Foreign Liquor.
IMFS :- Indian Made Foreign Sprit.
GSE :- Good Service Entry.
MSE :- Meritorious Service Entry.

The maximum per hearing fee permitted by SC

Did you know the maximum per hearing fee permitted by SC is Rs 8000?

Late MC Setalvad is recognized as a stalwart supporter for his lawful discernment as well as for his carefully holding fast as far as possible set by the Supreme Court Rules also. Yes, the most extreme he charged in his lifetime per hearing was Rs 1600. Likewise for the work law mammoth M. K. Ramamurthy who what’s more never showed up for administrations. He took a principled stand – he couldn’t rage against the same administration from which he had taken expenses whenever he showed up for the work. He favored in this way to speak to work all through his vocation.

Representational image. AFP

Today first rate advocates charge anything between Rs 10 lakh to Rs 1 crore and more for each hearing, with Harish Salve gladly announcing in a Times Now indicate over a year back that he was the nation’s most elevated charging advocate. Late Justice VR Krishna Iyer called Rs 25000 for each hearing in those days as extravagant. His head may squirm and turn uncomfortably in his grave if told about the present rate.

Representational picture. AFPRepresentational picture. AFP

The Supreme Court Rules 2013 grant a greatest of Rs 8000 for each hearing. Clearly the standard is rehearsed more in rupture than in consistence. It is maybe implied for those defendants who can’t manage the cost of top legal advisors and settle for the ones accessible under the SC lawful guide plan. Why the impoverished, not even the humbly rich can manage the cost of such personality boggling expenses unless the stakes are high.

The greater part of the customers who can bear the cost of are corporates with profound pockets. The Attorney General Mukul Rohatgi, himself a fruitful corporate legal advisor till he suspended his sufficient private practice, is apparently annoyed by the tardy strategies received by the lawful hawks and influenced the Apex Court to force overwhelming fines on organizations doing as such furthermore those seeking after vexatious prosecutions. The outcome is the Supreme Court as of late slapped a heavy punishment of Rs 50 lakh on a huge number of organizations including Star India and tailed it up with Rs 25 lakh on another group of errant organizations. The rationale is whether you can manage the cost of extravagant expenses to legal advisors, you should hack up for lawful guide. Sufficiently reasonable.

Be that as it may, then how to control the legal counselor charges? Should Parliament administer on it? On the off chance that it does, there would a cry of dissent. Drug costs can be controlled yet not proficient charges would be the priggish hold back. Could the super cine stars and IPL cricketers be requested that acknowledge an administration altered charge? No chance.

The business sector compels however can be relied on to control the legal counselor insatiability, in a manner of speaking. In the USA, legal counselors perpetually take a rate of the grant sum in property suits and remuneration claims. The Indian law disallows both contracted bookkeepers and legal advisors from taking commission based compensation. While that is all together for CAs who generally would see righteousness in raising benefits through astute if sharp bookkeeping hones, there is no motivation behind why legal advisors ought to be so hamstrung.

Truth be told the law ought to effectively energize result arranged compensation for legal advisors. To begin with, there is an impetus to buckle down for the customer. In the event that you lose because of terrible backing or certainties being stacked up against you or both, you don’t get anything. Stella, the 79 year old lady whose thighs were singed by sizzling McDonald espresso got walloping US $ 2.86 million remuneration simply because the adequately incentivized legal advisors buckled down for it. There is nothing incorrectly or corrupt in an expense legal counselor taking Rs 10 lakh charge after he wins a Rs 1 crore charge discount claim.

It has to be sure got everything pulling out all the stops. Time taken would be less in light of the fact that the legal counselors would not take suspensions at the drop of the cap. Per listening to expense makes them self-satisfied and imbues a component of self-enthusiasm for delaying the case. Besides, even moderately less rich individuals can manage the cost of the administrations of value, choice legal counselors in light of the fact that the topic of expenses would emerge just on winning the suit.

The Supreme Court just imposed costs of 25 lac on the “rich and powerful”

The Supreme Court of India has forced expenses of 25 lac on three gatherings for “misuse of legal procedure” according to this PTI report on NDTV.

The gatherings incorporates a German organization Messer Griesham GmbH (MGG) other than another organization Goyal Gasses Limited (GGL) and a gathering of persons known as Ruias.

The judgment was rendered by Justices Jasti Chelameswar and AM Sapre in a question starting in the buy of shares by GmbH and the complaint to the same by Goyal Gasses. A labyrinth of prosecution resulted for a long time coming full circle in this judgment by the Supreme Court.

Various senior direction and law offices have showed up in the matter including any semblance of Fali Nariman, Anil Divan, Dhruv Mehta, S Ganesh, Rohit Kapadia and legal advisors from Karanjawala and Co.

The court inferred that the ‘net impact of the case’ was the use of ‘impressive legal time’ on the matter. The court likewise called attention to the way that 18 working days of the court was spent on listening to the case “as though this Court were a Court of Original Jurisdiction attempting the different aforementioned suits.”

“… The moment SLPs emerge out of different interlocutory procedures. Contentions were progressed on either side for a time of around 18 working days as though this Court were a Court of Original Jurisdiction attempting the different aforementioned suits. The reality remains that in none of the suits even issues have been encircled in this way. The educated direction showing up for the gatherings eagerly asked that there ought to be an absolution to the case and along these lines this Court ought to look at each inquiry of actuality and law hurled by the tremendous case. We trust that it is just the gatherings who are to be rebuked for the situation.

This case, in our perspective, is a great case of the misuse of the legal procedure by corrupt disputants with cash control, all for the sake of lawful rights by falling back on misleading statements, misdirecting representations and concealment of realities. Every last gathering is blameworthy of either of the aforementioned unfortunate activities..”

The Court descended upon the “rich and effective” for squandering the season of the Court under Article 136, time which it felt could have been spent on additionally meriting cases.

“This case ought to likewise serve as evidence of the misuse of the optional Jurisdiction of this Court under Article 136 by the rich and effective for the sake of a ‘battle for equity’ at every last interlocutory stride of a suit. Colossal measure of legal time of this Court and two High Courts was spent on this case. The vast majority of it is avoidable and could have been well spent on additionally meriting cases.”

It, in this manner, continued to force expenses of Rs. 25 lakhs each on 3 parties. The said sum must be paid to the National Legal Services Authority.

“We in this manner, consider it suitable to force model expenses measured at Rs.25,00,000.00 (Rupees Twenty Five Lakhs just) to be paid by each of the three gatherings i.e. GGL, MGG and RUIAS.

The said sum is to be paid to National Legal Services Authority as remuneration for the loss of legal time of this nation and the same might be used by the National Legal Services Authority to store poor defendants to seek after their cases under the watchful eye of this Court in meriting cases.”

Read the judgment below.


SARFAESI Act can’t override Rent Control Laws; Tenants can’t be expelled utilizing procurements of SARFAESI Act: Supreme Court

An tenant can’t be discretionarily removed by utilizing the procurements of the SARFAESI Act as that would sum to stifling the statutory privileges of security given to the occupant. A non obstante provision (Section 35 of the SARFAESI Act) can’t be utilized to bulldoze the statutory rights vested on the occupants under the Rent Control Act, the Court said. In a critical decision, Supreme Court of India has held that the procurements of the SARFAESI Act can’t override the procurements of the Rent Control Act.

Pinnacle Court Bench containing Justices V. Gopala Gowda and Amitava Roy, in Vishal N. Kalsaria versus Bank of India, said that non obstante provision as in area 35 of the SARFAESI Act can’t be utilized to bulldoze the statutory rights vested on the tenants under the Rent Control Act.


The Appellants were the occupants involving the property sold in the Bank. Following the proprietor defaulted installment of contribution, the Bank continued under SARFAESI Act, and the Magistrate permitted the use of the bank looking for ownership of the sold properties which are in genuine ownership of the Appellant. The Appellants drew nearer Small causes court and the court passed a between time directive against impeding the ownership of the appealing party over the suit premises amid the pendency of the suit.

bank sarfaesi act

The Appellants, as interveners, then documented an application as an intervener to keep with it of the request of Magistrate which was can’t. Depending on ‘Harshad Govardhan Sondagar v. Global Assets Reconstruction Co. Ltd.’, the Magistrate held that when the secured bank makes a move under Section 13 or 14 of the SARFAESI Act to recoup the ownership of the secured premium and recuperate the advance sum by offering the same out in the open closeout, then it is not open for the Court to concede an order under Section 33 of the Rent Control Act. The Magistrate additionally held that request went in Rent suit can’t be said to be tying upon bank. The occupants drew nearer Supreme Court.

SARFESI Act can’t override Rent Control Laws

The Apex Court held that a landowner can’t be allowed to do in a roundabout way what he has been banned from doing under the Rent Control Act, all the more so when the two enactments, that is the SARFAESI Act and the Rent Control Act work in totally diverse fields. Dismissing the dispute of the Bank that the SARFESI Act override procurements of Rent Control Act, the Court said that if it somehow happened to be acknowledged, it would render the whole plan of all Rent Control Acts working in the nation as futile and useless since tenants would be left completely to the kindness of their proprietors and in the trepidation that the landowner might utilize the tenanted premises as a security premium while taking a credit from a bank and hence default on it. A landowner would just need to surrender the tenanted premises as a security enthusiasm to the lender banks while he is as yet getting rent for the same. In the event of default of the advance, the most extreme brunt will be borne by the clueless occupant, who might be expelled from the ownership of the tenanted property by the Bank under the procurements of the SARFAESI Act. By no means can this be allowed, the Bench said.

Harshad Govardhan Sondagar case confounded :

The Court additionally said that choice in Harshad Govardhan Sondagar case can’t be comprehended to have held that the procurements of the SARFAESI Act override the procurements of the Rent Control Act, and that the Banks are at freedom to oust the tenants dwelling in the tenanted premises which have been offered as insurance securities for advances on which default has been finished by the indebted person/proprietor. The Court said ‘Irregular sentences have been grabbed from the judgment and utilized, with no endeavor to comprehend the genuine imply of the judgment completely’ In Harshad Govardhan Sondagar case, (Read Live Law report here) the Apex Court had held that where, nonetheless, the legal ownership of the secured resource is not with the borrower, but rather with the resident under a legitimate lease, the secured loan boss can’t assume control ownership of the secured resource until the legal ownership of the renter gets decided.

Occupant must be ousted under Rent Control Laws :

The Court likewise watched that occupant can be ousted when taking after the due procedure of law, as endorsed under the procurements of the Rent Control Act. An occupant can’t be self-assertively removed by utilizing the procurements of the

SARFAESI Act as that would sum to crippling the statutory privileges of assurance given to the occupant, the Bench said. The Court additionally said that in perspective of the Rent Control Act, the onus to get such a deed enrolled is on the proprietor and thus neither the landowner nor the banks can be allowed to abuse the actuality of non-enlistment of the occupancy deed against the inhabitant.

Area 35 SARFESI Act just reaches out to Laws working in same field. A non obstante provision (Section 35 of the SARFAESI Act) can’t be utilized to bulldoze the statutory rights vested on the tenants under the Rent Control Act. The expression ‘whatever other law for the present in power’ as showing up in Section 35 of the SARFAESI Act can’t intend to reach out to every single law established by the Central and State governing bodies and It can just stretch out to the laws working in the same field, the Court held.

Related Links:
SARFAESI Act to cover NBFCs

Odd-even can’t be implemented permanently, clarifies Kejriwal

Delhi’s 25 million inhabitants woke up in the new year on Friday doing the math as the Capital set out on a radical examination for the following two weeks when occupants will be permitted to drive their autos just on exchange days.

Delhi boss priest Arvind Kejriwal on Friday said it was unrealistic to execute the odd-even movement apportioning plan on a lasting premise.

“It is unrealistic to execute the plan for all time,” Kejriwal told CNN-IBN. “These weapons are utilized on transitory premise to check unsafe levels of contamination.”

He said the plan would be by and by till January 15. “A choice on whether to proceed with it or not will be taken strictly when January 15.”

The odd-even plan that permits odd and even-numbered private vehicles to utilize on city streets on exchange days goes for diminishing air contamination levels.

Gopal Rai goes by transport; Kejriwal calls odd-even a win

Kejriwal, who carpooled with transport clergyman Gopal Rai and wellbeing pastor Satyendra Jain to Delhi Secratariat on Friday morning, said he was “overpowered” by the reaction of individuals towards the odd-even plan in New Delhi. The plan has been fruitful in this way, the Aam Aadmi Party convenor said.

“I am really overpowered by the reaction we have gotten as such. There are less even-numbered autos on the streets,” Kejriwal said.

He said the general population of Delhi acknowledged the plan “entire heartedly”, including: “I am certain that in next five years individuals will demonstrate the best approach to rest of the nation.”

Embedded image permalink

On Friday, most cars appeared to be following the rules and traffic was a tiny trickle compared to the usual rush-hour chaos. But with all schools and colleges and many offices shut, the traffic volumes were not truly indicative of the plan’s success.
Top politicians, judges, police and prison officials, women and sick people and motorbikes are exempt from the new rules.
AAP volunteers hand out roses to Delhi’s odd-even violators
10 am As the much-debated odd-even rule kicked in, pollution meters have been put up at several places across the city while Aam Aadmy Party leaders were seen carpooling and travelling to work on bikes. Several civil defence volunteers were seen holding placards and giving roses to violators of the odd-even rule.

Source :

Related Link:
Vehicle registration plates of India
Delhi will restrict cars from Jan 1 to cut pollution

New Traffic Rule in Delhi

Delhi will restrict cars from Jan 1 to cut pollution

The Delhi government declared on Friday every private car and bike will be permitted on the city’s streets just every other day from next year in a bid to even the odds stacked against authorities in their efforts to clean up the Capital’s toxic air.

New Traffic Rule in Delhi

Private vehicles will be permitted to keep running in the city on substitute days relying upon whether their licence plates end in even or odd numbers, the administration announced a day after it confronted feedback from the Delhi high court over the city’s mounting pollution problem.

The technique, all the more regularly known as street space apportioning, is followed in different structures over the world, however specialists said execution could prove to be a major challenge as well over two million vehicles would have to be kept off the roads consistently

“We are looking at executing this plan in a city where nobody is prepared to follow basic traffic rules,” said a senior government official on condition of anonymity.

Delhi traffic rules and regulations

The model is as of now in power in Beijing, which Delhi surpassed a year ago to be positioned as the world’s most dirtied city in a WHO report.

Read: Pollution up seven-fold in Delhi since October 1: CSE

The choice taken at a meeting headed by boss clergyman Arvind Kejriwal won’t have any significant bearing to CNG-driven transports, taxis, auto-rickshaws and crisis vehicles yet will cover autos entering Delhi from different states.

Authorities say even-numbered autos will be permitted to keep running on even days and odd-numbered ones on odd days.

A board of trustees including individuals from the earth office, activity police, transport office and the divisional chief will choose how the arrangement will be actualized.

Till then, activity police may get break forces to punish errant drivers under the new run the show.

Till then, traffic police may get interim powers to penalise errant drivers under the new rule.

The clearing move, similar to the one embraced by Beijing in 2008 in front of the Olympics, will apply to a vast majority of almost nine million vehicles enlisted in Delhi, which adds around 1,500 new vehicles to its streets consistently.

The city’s vehicular populace, which causes stifling jams on all weekdays, incorporates around 2.7 million autos.

Read | Traffic proportioning: Rules different nations took after to cut contamination

The administration additionally reported a large number of different measures that could control air contamination, including ceasing roadside stopping to fight blockage, an enhancing the general population transportation framework and conveying cleaner fuel to the city before whatever is left of the nation.

The city likewise plans to close down one of its most established and minimum productive warm power plants. The Badarpur plant, authorized in the mid 1970s, uses obsolete hardware and regularly separates.

Movement police will likewise be advised to guarantee that diesel-swallowing trucks, which travel through the city around evening time, enter strictly when 11pm. Right now trucks are permitted to enter the city at 9pm, regularly bringing about huge car influxes.

It was not instantly clear when the measures would produce results or precisely to what extent they would proceed.

Read: Smog, toxic air plays havoc with sporting events in New Delhi
Earlier this year the city ordered all private cars older than 10 years to be taken off the roads, becoming the second major city in the world to do so after Beijing.

Last year, the World Health Organization named the Indian capital as the world’s most polluted, with 12 other Indian cities ranking among the worst 20.

In November and early December the city’s air quality slumped to hazardous levels, with levels of PM2.5 pollutants, the very fine particles that get lodged inside the lungs and cause the most damage, soaring to 12 times above WHO’s safety level of 25 micrograms per cubic meter.

The city has been blanketed in grey smog, and while there is no reliable data on respiratory diseases, most doctors in the capital report a sharp spike in pollution-related illness during the winter months.

Growth of Administrative Law in India

The term Rule of Law of got from French phase ‘la principle de legalite’ which implies the principle of legality. It refers to an administration in view of standards of principles and not of man. Edward Coke is said to be the originator of this idea.

MEANING of Administrative LAW :

Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of authoritative offices of the administration/government which include of rule making or legislation(when appointed to them by the Legislature as and when the need be),adjudication(to proclaim decisions while giving judgement on certain matters),implementation/enforcement of public policy.

Purposes behind GROWTH:

1) Rise in complexity quality justified treatment variable by the state authorities in order to provide functioning in that area with vital certainty and solutions.

Growth of Administrative Law in India
Growth of Administrative Law in India

2) Industrial revolution that resulted in the coming up of urban communities and new types of economic transactions necessitated handling of affairs by govt in order to facilitate production,supply and exchange of products and services.

3) Technological developments and the increasing specialization has required for the increased need of particular treatment of undertakings by govt authorities.

4) To permit important adaptability in the authoritative system so that the challenges emerging because of social and economic factors could be tended to all the more adequately and efficiently.
5) To permit experimentation with a specific order to ensure the application of best fit model in a given situation

6) To permit participation of people in the administrative functioning to provide the necessary authority to the administrative officials so that they can address the challenges arising due to extraordinary circumstances or crisis circumstances.

Related Link:
Administrative Law (N-DLM)
Administrative law

Objectives of The Criminal Justice System

The main Objectives of Criminal Justice System can be categorized as follows:

  • To prevent the occurrence of crime.
  • To punish the transgressors and the criminals.
  • To rehabilitate the transgressors and the criminals.
  • To compensate the victims as far as possible.
  • To maintain law and order in the society.
  • To deter the offenders from committing any criminal act in the future.

    Criminal Justice System as a Filtering Process

    Key Players in Criminal Justice System :
    >> POLICE
    >> JUDGE

    1) POLICE : Investigate the case,
    Arrest the accused,
    Collect the evidence,
    Keep the peace,
    Prevent crime,
    Provide social services.


  • Lawyers who represent the state and conduct criminal cases against defendants,
  • The role of the Prosecutor begins once the police filed the chargesheet in the court,
  • The Prosecutor must conduct the prosecution on behalf of the Police investigation,
  • It is his/her duty to present all the facts, witnesses and evidence before the court
  • He/She has the right to a speedy trial


  • Represent the accused after arrest to give advice,
    Investigate details of the offense on behalf of the accused,
  • Discuss the case with the prosecutor and test the strength of the state’s case,
  • Represent the accused at bail hearings,

Represent the accused at trial  Present an appeal.

4) JUDGE :

  • The judge is like an umpire in the Court,
  • The judge hears all the witnesses and see the evidence presented by the both parties,
  • The judge decides whether the accused person is guilty or innocent,
  • If the accused is convicted, then the judge pronounces the sentence,
  • He may send the person to jail or impose a fine or both according to the law prescribes