1. DNA Daddy: A Quest for Legitimacy in Indian Law (Consequences of Rohit Shekhar versus N. D. Tiwari case) Dr. G. K. Goswami, IPS (UTTAR PRADESH POLICE) On nomination to : United Nations Office on Drug and Crime December 2012
2. “There can’t be an ill-conceived tyke, there must be ill-conceived guardians” – George Bernard Shaw “Parenthood is a reality, parenthood a conviction.”
3. Authenticity • Legitimacy is the status of a youngster destined to guardians who are legitimately hitched to each other. • A kid is, or is dared to be, real on the off chance that it is conceived anyplace on the planet in ‘legitimate wedlock’. • Illegitimacy is the status of a youngster considered outside of the marriage. • “Assumption of authenticity”, doled out rights, obligations and commitments to the concerned gatherings i.e. tyke, mother, father and so on.
4. Authenticity in different Countries • Marriage is the cardinal lead in assuming authenticity. Be that as it may, types of marriage may change. • With time live-n-relationship has likewise been legitimately acknowledged yet with specific reservations. • In UK, A youngster not conceived in legal wedlock would, in any case, be viewed as honest to goodness in the event that, it is honest to goodness by the law of the residence States of both the guardians at the time it was conceived. . • In the US, a tyke conceived outside a legitimate marriage will free Child Support and legacy rights if the parenthood of the kid is not lawfully settled.
5. Assumption of Legitimacy in India • Section – 112 of Indian Evidence Act, 1872 – – “Birth amid marriage, decisive verification of authenticity”. – The lawful assumption is like that of the Latin Maxim, ‘pater est quem muptice demonstrat’, which means in this manner ‘he is the father whom the marriage shows’. • It is the ‘social father’ who get lawful acknowledgment and not the organic maker. • Only exemption is non-access to spouse which is just a ground for division or separation.
6. Vital Ingredients of S-112 • The kid ought to have been conceived amid the continuation of a legitimate marriage, or if the marriage was broken up, inside 280 days after its disintegration, the mother staying unmarried. • The gatherings to the marriage ought to have had admittance to each other whenever when the tyke could have been conceived.
7. Cruel substances in Life • If a man weds a lady enceinte (pregnant) and the youngster is conveyed even soon after marriage – regardless of the possibility that the marriage is proclaimed void – the kid would in any case be viewed as the posterity of the present spouse and would be entitled for all rights like support, legacy and so on • Where the kid was conceived amid the pendency of upkeep appeal to and the husband neglected to demonstrate “non-get to” it was held that the tyke was true blue off spring. However, here, the indicate be noted is that the spouse was carrying on with a double-crossing life. … contd
8. • Even if the spouse is genuinely sick, that being said the issue of assumption, under Section – 112 can’t be disproved. • Even if the spouse is barren, then additionally the issue of assumption, under Section – 112 can’t be invalidated. • The lady got pregnant through manual sperm injection without the assent of spouse. • Pregnancy through DNA robbery, fallitio, condom content, IVF and so on.
9. Issues of Live – in relationship: A New Social Paradigm “Wedded in flurry, we apologize at relaxation” – William Congreve • Its like a ‘test drive’ • result of the tussle amongst convention and advancement. • Living together without having formal ties of marriage • No bulky liabilities, appreciate flexibility, no lawful structure for detachment and so on • More proliferated by Female Activists-As an image of ladies liberation
10. In India, the seeds of legitimate acknowledgment of live-in relationship might be followed in “The Domestic Violence Act, 2005” [S-2(f)]. • D. Velusamy versus D. Patchaiammal [SLP (Crl.) Nos. 2273-2274/2010] The Supreme Court held that, a relationship must be in the ‘way of marriage’. • Couple should socially perceived as companions. • Must have lived respectively in a ‘mutual family unit’ as characterized under Section – 2(s) of the Act. • Lived together for ‘a critical timeframe’. • Must achieve lawful eligible age. • No past conjugal commitments (generally prompted to Polygamy). • Must have intentionally lived together – No intimidation, double dealing or misrepresentation.
11. New Scientific apparatuses to decide Legitimacy Use of Scientific confirmations in Judicial Process – Old Tradition Buckly versus Rice Thomas (1554) 1 Plowden 118. Cited by Justice M. Jagannadha Rao, C.J. Kerala,1993(1) KLT p.19 As long back as in mid sixteenth century, Justice Sauders communicated the worry appeared in law by tolerating direction from logical skill. He expressed “… .if matters emerge in our law which concerns others sciences or resources, we usually apply for the guide of that science or staff which it concerns. This is a decent admirable thing in our law. We favor of them and support them as things deserving of tribute”.
12. DNA • Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA) is the fundamental constituent of the chromosomes of all living beings. • DNA twofold helix structure was designed by Watson and Crick in 1953 and granted Noble Prize. • Basis for Biotechnology – An art of Wonders
13. DNA Fingerprinting • Dr. Alec Jefferey from the University of Leicester is called Fahter of DNA Profiling. • First brought into criminal equity framework in 1986 when helped UK Police in examination of conceivably connected rape combined with murder of two young ladies.
14. • DNA Technology gives an instrument in the hands of police with a potential “hereditary onlooker”. • The system has multi-dimensional applications like individual ID, criminal recognizable proof, natural life wrongdoing and so on separated from paternity and maternity assurance and so on. • UK, USA and numerous districts have acknowledged the method as confirmation in criminal equity framework yet India has yet to acknowledge. DNA Bill is as yet pending in Parliament
15. Wellsprings of Biological Evidence • Blood • Semen • Saliva • Urine • Hair • Teeth • Bone • Tissue Blood recolor Only a little measure of blood is expected to get a DNA profile
16. Ventures in DNA Fingerprinting: Sample Obtained from Crime Scene or Paternity Investigation DNA Extraction DNA Quantitation PCR Amplification of Multiple STR markers Biology Separation and Detection of PCR Products (STR Alleles) Technology Sample Genotype Determination Genetics Comparison of Sample Genotype to Other Sample Results If coordinate happens, correlation of DNA profile to populace databases Generation of Case Report with Probability of Random Match Figure 1.2, J.M. Head servant (2005) Forensic DNA Typing, second Edition © 2005 Elsevier Academic Press
17. Uses of DNA Fingerprinting DNA fingerprinting can be utilized for different purposes. Wrongdoing Investigation Family Matters Medical Diagnosis Pedigree Analysis Seed-stock Identification Defense Records Sex-determination in Animals Wildlife preservation Authenticity of buyer items
18. Sam Sheppard Case • Dr. Sam was sentenced forever detainment for asserted murder of his four months pregnant spouse Dr. Marilyn Sheppard in 1954 in Ohio. After conviction passed on in prison in 1970. • His child had encouraged for leading DNA Profiling and he was demonstrated honest in 2000. • Consequently ‘Precept of Finality’ was casual and made ready in U.K., for presenting The Criminal Justice Act-2003 for reviving trial if there should be an occurrence of new and convincing confirmation shows up in egregious lawful offense. Lawyer General Ms. Janet Reno properly said-“Indicted by juries, excused by science… ”
19. Rules to direct DNA Test Gautam Kundu v. Condition of West Bengal (1993 AIR 2295 1435 ) • Courts in India can’t arrange blood test as an issue of schedule. • Whenever applications are made for such supplications with a specific end goal to have wandering request, the petition for blood test can’t be engaged. • There must be a solid ‘at first sight’ situation where the spouse must build up non-access keeping in mind the end goal to disperse the assumption emerging under Sec. – 112 of Indian Evidence Act. – 1872. • The court should deliberately look at in the matter of what might be the outcome of requesting the blood test, whether it will have the impact of marking a tyke as a mongrel and the mother as an unchaste lady. • No one can be constrained to give test of blood for investigation.
20. N. D. Tiwari versus Rohit Shekhar Case Background Facts Mrs. Ujjawala Sharma got hitched to Mr. B. P. Sharma in 1962 and both were irritated since 1970. Mrs. Sharma hail from a conspicuous political family and herself was politically dynamic at National level. In political association Mr. Tiwari came in contact with Mrs. Sharma and continue going by her home since 1977. Rohit Shekhar was destined to Mrs. Sharma in 1979. Mr. furthermore, Mrs. Sharma got separate in 2006.
21. Fight in court Chronology of legitimate occasions Sept 13, 2007: Rohit Shekhar documents paternity suit in the Delhi High Court. Apr 11, 2008: Due to specialized defects, new suit recorded. Nov 25: Single-judge seat of J Reva Khetrapal summons the A P Governor N. D. Tiwari to show up face to face in her chamber on Dec 16. Tiwari challenges single judge request under CrPC exempting senator from going to court. Nov 3, 2009: Single-judge seat of Justice S N Dhingra rejected Shekhar’s case on specialized grounds of constraint and ward. Damage 17, 2010: Division seat of Justice Vikramjit Sen and Manmohan Singh overrules single judge request and permits Shekhar’s case to continue as his home was in Delhi.
22. Apr 7: Single-judge seat of Justice J R Midha requests that Tiwari react on photos set on record by Shekhar and his mom Ujjwala Sharma. Dec 23: Single-judge seat of Justice S Ravindra Bhat coordinates Tiwari to give blood test for DNA test. Feb 7, 2011: Tiwari records advance and division seat of equity Vikramjit Sen and Siddharth Mridul maintains arrange for giving blood test. Damage 18: Tiwari moves Supreme Court which declines to finish what has been started for directing DNA Test. June 1: Ujjwala and Shekhar seemed to give blood tests yet Tiwari backtracks. Sept 23: Single-judge seat Justice Geeta Mittal says Tiwari’s refusal is unjustified and malafide yet he can’t be constrained to give blood test.
23. Apr 27, 2012: Shekhar challenges the request before division seat of HC, which puts aside the single-judge request. Apr 27: Tiwari requested that agree to court arrange and on refusal, blood test to be brought with police offer assistance. May 1: Supreme Court declines to engage Tiwari’s allure against self implication and guides him to conform to arrange. May 14: HC coordinates Tiwari not to leave the nation before giving blood test and requests CDFC to gather tests. May 16: HC coordinates Tiwari, Ujjwala and Shekhar to be available before Joint Registrar, SC, on May 21 for giving blood tests. May 26: Ujjwala and Shekhar give blood tests before Joint Registrar. May 27: Tiwari moves Supreme Court get-away seat that he ought not be constrained to give blood test against his desire.
24. May 28: SC rejects his request and allowed consent that his blood test will be taken at his living arrangement at Dehradun within the sight of District Judge of the State, Civil Surgeon, Pathologist, HC Joint Registrar, Mrs. Ujjwala and Shekhar. May 29: Tiwari’s blood test was gathered at Dehradun and sent to CDFD lab. July 2: HC gets report of DNA test from the lab. July 20: Tiwari’s turn to HC for keeping the DNA test report classified. HC rejected the supplication then he move to SC. July 27: SC dismisses his request for keeping his DNA report a mystery. Court opened the DNA Test report and pronounced “ND Tiwari is the organic father of Shekhar”.
25. The Court Judgment • The Supreme Court held: “There is obviously the crucial enthusiasm of kid to not be marked ill-conceived; yet the indisputableness of the assumption made by the law in such manner must not act drawback to the interests of the youngster. The defensive casing of authenticity ought not bury the tyke’s desire to take in reality of her or his paternity.”
26. Remarkable Features and Legal Issues • The Son yet not Mother approached to get acknowledgment of his natural maker (can not call father – social term)- Unique case. • The Apex Court substantial heartedly overlooked the long deferral in documenting the suit since 1979. • The Supreme Court veer off from the rules issued for playing out the DNA Test to find out the paternity in Gautam Kundu case. • The primary deviations incorporate – a) – No standard test for paternity – while mother stays under commitment of substantial marriage to abstain from marking mother as unchaste and tyke as knave. Hence by all appearances proportion decidendi “imperative enthusiasm of tyke not to be marked ill-conceived or mother unchaste” was neglected.
27. b)- The charged was compelled to give blood test for testing. Driving the denounced to give blood test – Does it add up to the infringement of Art-20 (3) – self implication. • The mother was at that point in the commitment of legitimate marriage, It can’t positively be called live-in relationship. Henceforth was not it an instance of additional conjugal relationship? Won’t it add up to polygamy? • How law suit both social and natural father together? Won’t it make status of having two father of a man? • if there should be an occurrence of lawfully settled ‘social father’ can a youngster get status of legitimate beneficiary and can request genealogy, legacy or support or social name from ‘organic father’? • How far it is defended to make the DNA report Public? Won’t it add up to infringement of Right to Privacy?
28. • The progression, support and so forth issues in the different Laws have likewise to be tended to as the rights and obligations must be reclassified once the organic father gets acknowledgment in the law-Is Indian culture prepared to acknowledge it? • if there should be an occurrence of deviation from the rules issued in Gautam Kundu case by Supreme Court, what might be the new rules to lead DNA Test for determining Paternity debate?
29. What to do then… . • DNA Test ought to be joined under S-112 of The Indian Evidence Act, 1872 as a logical instrument to find out paternity debate. About 150 old lawful suspicions in the law can’t over run the logical headway and in the time of sexual orientation equity. Law can’t segregate in the appearance of ensuring marriage and family. • DNA master ought to be incorporated into the rundown of Expert under area 295 (4) of The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. (Recommd. of Justice Mallimath Comimittee-2003). • Need to pass DNA – Bill by Indian Parliament desperately. • Need to have more clarity on live-in-relationship and its lawful ramifications generally society is going to face all the more such issues with time.
30. • Need to build up authorize DNA demonstrative focuses with prepared labor, the nation over, to meet the prospering need to dissect the case shows which are heaping in substantial numbers since years together and consequently aggravating in postponed equity. • Check on DNA analytic focuses in private areas. A SOP and rules must be outlined in DNA Bill for the reason. • DNA Profiling ought to be utilized with “incredible care-great hireling terrible ace” as there might be odds of quality burglary or snoozing. Manual sperm injection, sperm gift, sperm from fallitio or utilized condoms, surrogate mother and so forth are different issues which assist muddle the matter
Ref : www.slideshare.net/IndianScholars/dna-daddy-a-quest-for-legitimacy-in-indian-law?qid=14efaef6-e90b-4b7a-8d9c-264399c82d3b&v=&b=&from_search=1